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论自主武器军控的国际法及政策要点
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国家社会科学基金项目(19BFX209)


On the critical points of international law and policy regarding arms control of Autonomous Weapon System
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    摘要:

    如何规制自主武器是1980年《常规武器公约》框架下讨论的热点问题,目前这一议题已进入到政府专家组讨论阶段,对自主武器的研发、测试、部署及使用的关键问题,进行了比较深入的讨论。2018年以来,政府专家组会议最后文件已包含了未来谈判的若干指导性原则。本文认为,结合国际军控博弈的背景和各军事大国人工智能技术发展现状考虑,《日内瓦公约:第一附加议定书》第36条下缔约国审查义务、使用自主武器违反国际人道法的责任不得转移规则,以及2013年《武器贸易条约》对自主武器贸易的管制,是三个法律、政策背景极其复杂的问题。以自身军事能力不受到国际军控规则的严重削弱为基础考量,我国应该对此采取审慎的态度,尽力完善法律和政策。

    Abstract:

    The regulation of Autonomous Weapons Systems (AWS) is a hotly debated issue in the international community under the framework of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), and has advanced to the stage of meetings of the Governmental Group of Experts (GGE). The GGE meetings involve detailed discussions on a series of critical issues ranging from R&D, testing, and deployment in relation to the use of AWS. The Guideline Principle was annexed to the final documents of the GGE meetings in 2018, and aims to provide a blueprint for future negotiations. Given the general background of international arms control negotiations and the status quo of the AI technology possessed by the big military powers, three issues are extremely complicated from the legal and policy-related perspectives: the legal review under Article 36 of Additional Protocol I 1977, the non-transferability of the rule of responsibility, and the export control regime applicable to AWS under the Arms Trade Treaty 2013. With the reasonable expectation that intentional arms control rules should not compromise her military capacity, China must carry out sufficient due diligence to perfect the relevant laws and policies.

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冷新宇.论自主武器军控的国际法及政策要点[J].国防科技,2021,42(4):43-51;LENG Xinyu. On the critical points of international law and policy regarding arms control of Autonomous Weapon System[J]. National Defense Technology,2021,42(4):43-51

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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-08-31
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